Read out smart meter of the network operator KAIFA MA309M

 

Knowledge of current consumption data helps to optimize electricity consumption in a meaningful way. For this purpose, an additional smart meter can be installed or, even better, the smart meter of the network operator can be read out. As an example, the smart meter of my network operator, Salzburg AG, can be queried via the M-Bus customer interface and the data can thus be used in other systems. The values read out include the energy consumption and, if a PV system is used, the feed-in power, as well as the voltage and current of each individual phase, all live, at 5-second intervals. All that is needed to read out the Kaifa MA309M is an MBUS-to-UART board and an ESP32 microcontroller. I programmed the microcontroller in ESP-Home using an open source project from Github: https://github.com/DomiStyle/esphome-dlms-meter. After uploading the project to the ESP32, when connected to the smart meter, the ESP32 will deliver the data to the Home Assistant whereby these can be evaluated and used for certain automations.

A prerequisite for communication with the smart meter is the activation of the customer interface in the web portal of the network operator:

Enable customer interface

To activate the customer interface, my network operator offers a menu item in its portal for its release:

The key thus provided can be used to read out the data via M-Bus using an RJ12 connector. 

Hardware required

The following hardware is required for this purpose:

required software

As mentioned elsewhere on this page, I use Docker containers exclusively for my smart home setup:

Wiring

I connected the TSS721A to the ESP32 as follows:

Power supply via the PINs:

  • 5V and
  • GND

from the ESP32 to the M-Bus Board:

  • ESP32-Pin35 <-> M-Bus Board Pin TX
  • ESP32 pin16 <-> M-Bus Board Pin RX
  • ESP32-GND <-> M-Bus Board GND
  • ESP32-3V3 <-> M-Bus Board 3V3

From M-Bus Board to RJ12 connector

  • M-Bus Board MBUS1 to RJ12-3
  • M-Bus Board MBUS2 to RJ12-4


From the TSS721A to the RJ-12 connector of the Smart Meter:

Here again a single photo of the two boards:

ESPHome project

As a prerequisite for the ESPHome project, an additional folder is needed from the Git Hub project, which can be copied to a subfolder in ESP-Home or downloaded using git clone.

For me, the volumes in the Docker compose file of ESP-Home mount the /config folder to ./esphome:

..
    volumes:
      - ./esphome:/config:rw
..

docker-compose.yml, see also: Home-Assistant + DIY Microcontroller + ESP Home (Docker).

I put the files of the esphome-dlms-meter project in a subfolder using git clone:

cd FolderESPHOMEProject
git clone git@github.com:DomiStyle/esphome-dlms-meter.git

The folder is inside ./esphome for me, so it's in the container as a subfolder of /config : /config/esphome-dlms-meter

In order to create Wifi and the API key of the ESP-Home project correctly, the ESP32 should first be added as a new device in ESP-Home:

Afterwards the config of the ESP32 can be adjusted as follows:

[+]
esphome:
  name: smartmeter
  includes:
    - ./esphome-dlms-meter

esp32:
  board: esp32dev

# Enable logging
logger:

# Enable Home Assistant API
api:
  encryption:
    key: "??"

ota:
  password: "??"

wifi:
  ssid: !secret wifi_ssid
  password: !secret wifi_password

  # Enable fallback hotspot (captive portal) in case wifi connection fails
  ap:
    ssid: "Smartmeter Fallback Hotspot"
    password: "??"

captive_portal:
    
uart:
  tx_pin: GPIO16
  rx_pin: GPIO35
  baud_rate: 2400
  rx_buffer_size: 2048 
  id: mbus

sensor:
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_voltage_l1
    name: meter01_voltage_l1
    unit_of_measurement: V
    accuracy_decimals: 1
    device_class: "voltage"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_voltage_l2
    name: meter01_voltage_l2
    unit_of_measurement: V
    accuracy_decimals: 1
    device_class: "voltage"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_voltage_l3
    name: meter01_voltage_l3
    unit_of_measurement: V
    accuracy_decimals: 1
    device_class: "voltage"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_current_l1
    name: meter01_current_l1
    unit_of_measurement: A
    accuracy_decimals: 2
    device_class: "current"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_current_l2
    name: meter01_current_l2
    unit_of_measurement: A
    accuracy_decimals: 2
    device_class: "current"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_current_l3
    name: meter01_current_l3
    unit_of_measurement: A
    accuracy_decimals: 2
    device_class: "current"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_active_power_plus
    name: meter01_active_power_plus
    unit_of_measurement: W
    accuracy_decimals: 0
    device_class: "power"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_active_power_minus
    name: meter01_active_power_minus
    unit_of_measurement: W
    accuracy_decimals: 0
    device_class: "power"
    state_class: "measurement"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_active_energy_plus
    name: meter01_active_energy_plus
    unit_of_measurement: Wh
    accuracy_decimals: 0
    device_class: "energy"
    state_class: "total_increasing"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_active_energy_minus
    name: meter01_active_energy_minus
    unit_of_measurement: Wh
    accuracy_decimals: 0
    device_class: "energy"
    state_class: "total_increasing"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_reactive_energy_plus
    name: meter01_reactive_energy_plus
    unit_of_measurement: Wh
    accuracy_decimals: 0
    device_class: "energy"
    state_class: "total_increasing"
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_reactive_energy_minus
    name: meter01_reactive_energy_minus
    unit_of_measurement: Wh
    accuracy_decimals: 0
    device_class: "energy"
    state_class: "total_increasing"

text_sensor:
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_timestamp
    name: meter01_timestamp

mqtt:
  broker: "192.168.1.5"
  port: "1883"
  username: "mqtt"
  password: "??"
  id: mqtt_broker
  discovery: true

custom_component:
  - lambda: |-

      auto dlms_meter = new esphome::espdm::DlmsMeter(id(mbus));

      uint8_t key[] = {0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??, 0x??};
      dlms_meter->set_key(key, 16);

      dlms_meter->set_voltage_sensors(id(meter01_voltage_l1), id(meter01_voltage_l2), id(meter01_voltage_l3)); 

      dlms_meter->set_current_sensors(id(meter01_current_l1), id(meter01_current_l2), id(meter01_current_l3)); 

      dlms_meter->set_active_power_sensors(id(meter01_active_power_plus), id(meter01_active_power_minus));

      dlms_meter->set_active_energy_sensors(id(meter01_active_energy_plus), id(meter01_active_energy_minus));
      dlms_meter->set_reactive_energy_sensors(id(meter01_reactive_energy_plus), id(meter01_reactive_energy_minus));

      dlms_meter->set_timestamp_sensor(id(meter01_timestamp)); // Set sensor to use for timestamp (optional)

      dlms_meter->enable_mqtt(id(mqtt_broker), "meter01/data"); 

      return {dlms_meter};

The parameter "includes" points to the previously copied folder of the Github project. The unit8_t key must be filled with the previously created key of the customer interface (network operator portal). The connection of the ESP32 with Home Assistant can be done via the ESP-Home and its API key - the "mqtt:" section is then not necessary. If you prefer MQTT as protocol for the connection, you can alternatively fill the data for the MQTT broker. (IP, username and password).

Wrong values in Home Assistant

At the beginning, I used the pin 36 recommended in the project for the connection of the TSS721A, which generated completely wrong values every now and then:

First I corrected the wrong values manually, see also: www.libe.net/home-assistant-statistic.

The incorrect values can be avoided by filter in ESP-Home, see the following example:

[+]
...
  - platform: template
    id: meter01_active_power_plus
    name: meter01_active_power_plus
    unit_of_measurement: W
    accuracy_decimals: 0
    device_class: "power"
    state_class: "measurement"
    filters:
      - lambda: |-
          float MAX_DIFFERENCE = 1500.0; 
          static float last_value_t = NAN;
          static int count_missed_t = 0;
          if (count_missed_t == 5) last_value_t = x;
          if (isnan(last_value_t) || std::abs(x - last_value_t) < MAX_DIFFERENCE) {
            count_missed_t = 0;
            return last_value_t = x;
          } else {
            count_missed_t += 1;
            ESP_LOGW("main", "Missed Data active_power_plus %d", count_missed_t);
            return last_value_t;
          }

But it is better if the incorrect values do not occur at all. In my case I could solve the problem by changing the RX pin from 36 to 35. A corresponding hint can also be found in the Github project: https://github.com/DomiStyle/esphome-dlms-meter/issues/16.

ESP-Home Update: MBUS: Frame too big for received data

With my first ESP-Home version 2022.11.3 I used as value for the uart - rx_buffer_size: 1024, which caused the following error after an ESP-Home update to 2023.4.3 when reading out the data:

[20:44:29][E][espdm:064]: MBUS: Frame too big for received data
[20:44:30][E][espdm:048]: MBUS: Start bytes do not match
[20:44:30][E][espdm:104]: DLMS: Unsupported system title length

After changing rx_buffer_size to 2048, I was able to use the ESP32 with the new ESP Home version:

uart:
  tx_pin: GPIO16
  rx_pin: GPIO35
  baud_rate: 2400
  rx_buffer_size: 2048
  id: mbus

see also: https://github.com/DomiStyle/esphome-dlms-meter/issues/19

Conclusion

If the grid operator allows a readout of its smart meter, it provides the exact purchase and feed-in power. In addition, the data can be used to control a smarthome solution such as Home Assistant. The exact feed-in value can be particularly interesting for operators of photovoltaic systems. It would be conceivable, for example, to react to the surplus of a PV system without having to query the inverter and without having to install an additional smart meter. As Example: Control heating with Home Assistant.

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THANK YOU for your review!

Updated: 2024-02-17 von Bernhard | Übersetzung Deutsch |🔔 | Comments:0

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